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United Nations

United Nations is an international organisation. United Nations was founded in Year 1945, two years before Indian independence and after world war 2

Purpose of United Nations

  • To Maintain international Peace and Security
  • To Promote economic and Social Development
  • To protect Human Rights
  • Original Members (When Founded) – 51
    Present Members – 193(Latest addition in Un South Sudan July 2011)
  • Headquarters New York

History of United Nations (Why it was formed)

  • After world war 2 all the nations were in ruins and desperately wanted peace
  • 50 Countries gathered in San Francisco in 1945 to sign a document called The UN Charter, which created an Organisation and The United Nations was formed
  • The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of 50 countries. Poland signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member State.
  • Charter came into force and The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945.
  • The UN day is celebrated on 24 October.
  • The fore runner of UN was the League of Nations.
    • The League of Nations was created after world war 1, with the same motive to maintain world peace, security and Protect the human rights.
    • The League of Nations was Established in 1919 Under Treaty of Versailles
    • The International Labour Organisation (ILO) was also created under the Same Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the league
    • The League of Nations failed to prevent the World War 2, and hence ceased its activities.

Important Facts about UN

  • The name United Nations was coined by the then US president Franking D. Roosevelt.
  • The Term United Nations was declared first time on 1 January 1942 during second world war.
  • Original UN Logo was created by the team of designers in 1945 led by Oliver Lincoln Lundquist.
  • Official languages of UN- Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish

United Nations Principal Organs
GENERAL ASSEMBLY
  • Main Deliberative, Policymaking and Representative organ of UN
  • All 193 members represent in General Assembly (Only UN body with universal representation)
  • Located in New York
  • Meets each Year in the month of September
  • Elects a General Assembly President each year
  • Add a new membership of States in UN – by a decision of General Assembly upon recommendation of Security Council.
SECURITY COUNCIL
  • The Role of Security Council is to maintain international peace and security
  • Takes lead in determining existence of threat to the peace
  • Located in New York
  • President is the head and changes every month on rotation basis
  • Total members 15 (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent- for 2 Year)
  • Each Member has one Vote
  • 5 permanent Members include – China, Russian Federation, France UK and United States and have a Veto Power
  • Veto Power: refers to the power of permanent member to veto (Reject) any resolution of security council
Economic and Social Council (EcoSoc)
  • UN’s Central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development
  • Works into 3 dimensions of sustainable development economic, social, and environmental
  • Also responsible for follow up to major UN conferences and Summits
  • Members – 54
  • Located in New York
  • president is the highest power
Trusteeship Council
  • It was established to provide international supervision to 11 Trust Territories and to promote their advancement towards self-governance or independence
  • Trust territory is a non-self-governing territory placed under an administrative authority by the Trusteeship Council of UN
  • Aims of Trusteeship Council got fulfilled by 1994, when all the Trust Territories attained self-government or independence, either as a separate state or by joining neighbouring independent countries.
  • Trustee Council suspended operations in November 1994 a month after independence of Palau- last remaining trust territory
International Court of Justice
  • Principle Judicial Organ of UN
  • ITs role is to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to give advisory opinions on legal question
  • Composed of 15 Judges elected for 9 Years elected by Un General Assembly and Security council
  • Located in Peace Palace in Hague (Netherlands)
  • only Principal organ of UN not located in New York (USA)
  • its official language is French and English
  • ICJ is the successor of the Permanent Court of International justice, which was established by the League of Nations in 1920
The Secretariat
  • All the paperwork happens here
  • Comprises Secretary Genera and tens of thousands of UN staff members
  • Contains various departments having distinct actions and responsibilities
  • Secretary General is appointed by the General Assembly for 5 Year, renewable term
  • Secretary general is the chief Administrative officer and the Head of the Secretariat
  • Located in New York

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